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Top 10 Introductory Papers on Macroscopic Soil Plasticity Constitutive Modelling

Top Ten Introductory Papers in Macroscopic Soil Plasticity Constitutive Modelling by Professor Yannis F. Dafalias, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, CA, USA, and Department of Mechanics, National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.

List compiled in December 2003

The following list of 10 introductory papers is recommended for the beginner reader of macroscopic soil plasticity constitutive modeling, based on the simplicity and initiation of concepts. Many (and more recent) papers presenting models of greater simulative capabilities are not included, because they are formulated at a higher level of complexity, appropriate for advanced reading. Also, micromechanically based contributions were not considered in this list.

  • Drucker, D.C., R.E. Gibson and D.J. Henkel. (1955). “Soil Mechanics and Work-Hardening Theories of Plasticity”. Proceedings, ASCE, Vol. 81, pp. 1-14.
  • Roscoe, K.H., A.N. Schofield and D.P. Wroth. (1958). "On the Yielding of Soils”. Geotechnique, Vol. 9, pp. 22-53.
  • Roscoe, K.H. and J.B. Burland. (1968). "On the Generalized Stress-Strain Behavior of Wet Clay”. Engineering Plasticity, pp. 535-609.
  • DiMaggio, F.L. and I.S. Sandler. (1971). "Material Models for Granular Soils”. J. Eng. Mech. Div., ASCE, 97(EM3):935-950.
  • Lade, P.V.and Duncan J.M. (1975). "Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Theory for Cohesionless Soil”. J. Geotech. Eng. Div., ASCE, 101:1037-1053.
  • Vermeer, P.A. (1978). “A Double Hardening Model for Sands”. Géotechnique, 28: 413-433.
  • Nova, R and Wood, D.M. (1979). “A Constitutive Model for Sand in Triaxial Compression”. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 3:255-278.
  • Dafalias, Y.F. and Herrmann, L.R. (1982). “Bounding Surface Formulation of Soil Plasticity”. Chapter 10 in Soil Mechanics-Transient and Cyclic Loads, Pande, G.N.and Zienkiewicz, O.C., eds., pp. 253-282, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
  • Prevost, J.H. (1985). "A Simple Plasticity Theory for Frictional Cohesionless Soils”.Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Eng., 4:9-17.
  • Pastor, M., O.C. Zienkiewicz, and A.C. Chan. (1990). “Generalized Plasticity and the Modelling of Soil Behavior”. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., 14:151-190.


The following five papers co-authored by Y.F. Dafalias and his ex-students are recommended for advanced level soil plasticity reading. A very brief and very simple sixth paper on clay anisotropy is added at the end of the list, as a natural extension of the previous classical paper #3 on isotropic clays.

  • Anandarajah, A. and Dafalias, Y.F. (1986). "Bounding Surface Plasticity. III: Application to Anisotropic Cohesive Soils". Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE,112:1292-1318.
  • Kaliakin, V.N. and Dafalias, Y.F. (1990). "Theoretical Aspects of the Elastoplastic-Viscoplastic Bounding Surface Model for Cohesive Soils". Soils and Foundations, 30:11?24.
  • Wang, Z.L., Dafalias, Y.F., and Shen, C.K. (1990). "Bounding Surface Hypoplasticity Model for Sand". Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 116:983-1001.
  • Manzari, M.T. and Dafalias, Y.F. (1997). "A Critical State Two-Surface Plasticity Model for Sands”. Geotechnique, 47:255-272.
  • Li, X.S., and Dafalias, Y.F.(2002). “Constitutive Modeling of Inherently Anisotropic Sand Behavior”. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 128: 868-880.
  • Dafalias, Y.F. (1986). “An Anisotropic Critical State Soil Plasticity Model”. Mechanics Research Communications, 13:341-347.