- Understanding the need for pre-injection from permeability measurements: What is the connection?
- Nick Barton ; Eda Quadros
- Book Title / Journal: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
- Year: 2019 , Volume: 11
- Rock Mechanics
- Keywords: Pre-grouting ; Micro-cement ; Hydraulic apertures ; Physical joint apertures ; Joint roughness ; Particle size ; Anisotropic permeability
- Abstract
Pre-grouting ahead of tunnels has three main functions: to control water inflow into the tunnel, to limit groundwater drawdown above the tunnel, and to make tunnelling progress more predictable since rock mass quality is effectively improved. It helps to avoid settlement damage caused by consolidation of clay deposits beneath built-up areas, since towns tend to be built where terrain is more flat, due to the clay deposits. There are so many instances of settlement damage that the profession needs to take note of the need for high-pressure pre-grouting, to use micro-cements and micro-silica additives. The use of high-pressure injection may cause joint jacking, but this is local in extent when the rapid pressure decay away from an injection hole is understood. This effect is variable and depends on the geometrical parameters of the joints. This pressure-decay advantage must not be violated by maintaining high pressure when grout flow from the injection hole has ceased. The latter can cause damage to the grouting already achieved. Simplified methods of estimating mean hydraulic apertures (e) from Lugeon testing are described, and from more sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) permeability measurement. The estimation of the larger mean physical joint apertures (E) is based on the joint roughness coefficient (JRC). Comparison is then made with the empirical aperture-particle size criterion E > 4d95, where d95 represents almost the largest cement particle size. Depending on joint set orientations and on the available micro-cements, the decision must be made of which range of pre-injection pressure should be aimed for, using successive reductions of the water-cement ratio w/c. More simple estimation of permeability, also with depth dependence, can be made with the empirical link between a modified rock mass quality Q and permeability, which is termed QH2O. The value of this parameter can be based on core-logging or in-tunnel face logging. The 3D before-and-after-grouting permeability measurements have been used to justify the quantification of rock mass quality Q-parameter improvement, and the consequent increases in expected P-wave velocity and deformation modulus, for application in dam foundation treatment and its monitoring. PDF |
- An approximate nonlinear modified Mohr-Coulomb shear strength criterion with critical state for intact rocks
- Baotang Shen ; Jingyu Shi ; Nick Barton
- Book Title / Journal: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
- Year: 2018 , Volume: 10
- Rock Mechanics
- Keywords: shear strength ; Modified Mohr-Coulomb criterion ; critical state ; Intact rock
- Abstract
In this paper, the Mohr-Coulomb shear strength criterion is modified by mobilising the cohesion and internal friction angle with normal stress, in order to capture the nonlinearity and critical state concept for intact rocks reported in the literature. The mathematical expression for the strength is the same as the classical form, but the terms of cohesion and internal friction angle depend on the normal stress now, leading to a nonlinear relationship between the strength and normal stress. It covers both the tension and compression regions with different expressions for cohesion and internal friction angle. The strengths from the two regions join continuously at the transition of zero normal stress. The part in the compression region approximately satisfies the conditions of critical state, where the maximum shear strength is reached. Due to the nonlinearity, the classical simple relationship between the parameters of cohesion, internal friction angle and uniaxial compressive strength from the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion does not hold anymore. The equation for determining one of the three parameters in terms of the other two is supplied. This equation is nonlinear and thus a nonlinear equation solver is needed. For simplicity, the classical linear relationship is used as a local approximation. The approximate modified Mohr-Coulomb criterion has been implemented in a fracture mechanics based numerical code FRACOD, and an example case of deep tunnel failure is presented to demonstrate the difference between the original and modified Mohr-Coulomb criteria. It is shown that the nonlinear modified Mohr-Coulomb criterion predicts somewhat deeper and more intensive fracturing regions in the surrounding rock mass than the original linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion. A more comprehensive piecewise nonlinear shear strength criterion is also included in Appendix B for those readers who are interested. It covers the tensile, compressive, brittle-ductile behaviour transition and the critical state, and gives smooth transitions. PDF |
- Nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints using a linearized implementation of the Barton–Bandis model
- Simon Heru Prassetyo ; Marte Gutierrez ; Nick Barton
- Book Title / Journal: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
- Year: 2017 , Volume: 9
- Rock Mechanics
- Keywords: rock joints ; Joint shear behavior ; Friction and dilation ; Barton–Bandis (B–B) model ; Equivalent Mohr–Coulomb (M–C) parameters
- Abstract
Experiments on rock joint behaviors have shown that joint surface roughness is mobilized under shearing, inducing dilation and resulting in nonlinear joint shear strength and shear stress vs. shear displacement behaviors. The Barton–Bandis (BB) joint model provides the most realistic prediction for the nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints. The BB model accounts for asperity roughness and strength through the joint roughness coefficient (JRC) and joint wall compressive strength (JCS) parameters. Nevertheless, many computer codes for rock engineering analysis still use the constant shear strength parameters from the linear Mohr–Coulomb (M−C) model, which is only appropriate for smooth and non-dilatant joints. This limitation prevents fractured rock models from capturing the nonlinearity of joint shear behavior. To bridge the BB and the M−C models, this paper aims to provide a linearized implementation of the BB model using a tangential technique to obtain the equivalent M−C parameters that can satisfy the nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints. These equivalent parameters, namely the equivalent peak cohesion, friction angle, and dilation angle, are then converted into their mobilized forms to account for the mobilization and degradation of JRC under shearing. The conversion is done by expressing JRC in the equivalent peak parameters as functions of joint shear displacement using proposed hyperbolic and logarithmic functions at the pre- and post-peak regions of shear displacement, respectively. Likewise, the pre- and post-peak joint shear stiffnesses are derived so that a complete shear stress-shear displacement relationship can be established. Verifications of the linearized implementation of the BB model show that the shear stress-shear displacement curves, the dilation behavior, and the shear strength envelopes of rock joints are consistent with available experimental and numerical results. PDF |
- Risk of shear failure and extensional failure around over-stressed excavations in brittle rock
- Nick Barton ; Baotang Shen
- Book Title / Journal: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
- Year: 2017 , Volume: 9
- Rock Mechanics
- Keywords: Fracture propagation ; tension ; Shear ; Poisson's ratio ; Break-out ; Rock burst ; deep tunnels ; FRACOD model
- Abstract
The authors investigate the failure modes surrounding over-stressed tunnels in rock. Three lines of investigation are employed: failure in over-stressed three-dimensional (3D) models of tunnels bored under 3D stress, failure modes in two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of 1000 m and 2000 m deep tunnels using FRACOD, both in intact rock and in rock masses with one or two joint sets, and finally, observations in TBM (tunnel boring machine) tunnels in hard and medium hard massive rocks. The reason for ‘stress-induced’ failure to initiate, when the assumed maximum tangential stress is approximately (0.4–0.5)σc (UCS, uniaxial compressive strength) in massive rock, is now known to be due to exceedance of a critical extensional strain which is generated by a Poisson's ratio effect. However, because similar ‘stress/strength’ failure limits are found in mining, nuclear waste research excavations, and deep road tunnels in Norway, one is easily misled into thinking of compressive stress induced failure. Because of this, the empirical SRF (stress reduction factor in the Q-system) is set to accelerate as the estimated ratio σθmax/σc >> 0.4. In mining, similar ‘stress/strength’ ratios are used to suggest depth of break-out. The reality behind the fracture initiation stress/strength ratio of ‘0.4’ is actually because of combinations of familiar tensile and compressive strength ratios (such as 10) with Poisson's ratio (say 0.25). We exceed the extensional strain limits and start to see acoustic emission (AE) when tangential stress σθ ≈ 0.4σc, due to simple arithmetic. The combination of 2D theoretical FRACOD models and actual tunnelling suggests frequent initiation of failure by ‘stable’ extensional strain fracturing, but propagation in ‘unstable’ and therefore dynamic shearing. In the case of very deep tunnels (and 3D physical simulations), compressive stresses may be too high for extensional strain fracturing, and shearing will dominate, both ahead of the face and following the face. When shallower, the concept of ‘extensional strain initiation but propagation’ in shear is suggested. The various failure modes are richly illustrated, and the inability of conventional continuum modelling is emphasized, unless cohesion weakening and friction mobilization at different strain levels are used to reach a pseudo state of yield, but still considering a continuum. PDF |
- Reducing risk in long deep tunnels by using TBM and drill-and-blast methods in the same project–the hybrid solution
- Nick Barton
- Book Title / Journal: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
- Year: 2012 , Volume: 4
- Rock Mechanics
- Keywords: tunnel boring machine (TBM) ; rock strength ; deep tunnels ; tangential stress ; pre-injection ; Q-values ; utilization ; Risk
- Abstract
There are many examples of TBM tunnels through mountains, or in mountainous terrain, which have suffered the ultimate fate of abandonment, due to insufficient pre-investigation. Depth-of-drilling limitations are inevitable when depths approach or even exceed 1 or 2km. Uncertainties about the geology, hydro-geology, rock stresses and rock strengths go hand-in-hand with deep or ultra-deep tunnels. Unfortunately, unexpected conditions tend to have a much bigger impact on TBM projects than on drill-and-blast projects. There are two obvious reasons. Firstly the circular excavation maximizes the tangential stress, making the relation to rock strength a higher source of potential risk. Secondly, the TBM may have been progressing fast enough to make probe-drilling seem to be unnecessary. If the stress-to-strength ratio becomes too high, or if faulted rock with high water pressure is unexpectedly encountered, the “unexpected events” may have a remarkable delaying effect on TBM. A simple equation explains this phenomenon, via the adverse local Q-value that links directly to utilization. One may witness dramatic reductions in utilization, meaning ultra-steep deceleration-of-the-TBM gradients in a log-log plot of advance rate versus time. Some delays can be avoided or reduced with new TBM designs, where belief in the need for probe-drilling and sometimes also pre-injection, have been fully appreciated. Drill-and-blast tunneling, inevitably involving numerous “probe-holes” prior to each advance, should be used instead, if investigations have been too limited. TBM should be used where there is lower cover and where more is known about the rock and structural conditions. The advantages of the superior speed of TBM may then be fully realized. Choosing TBM because a tunnel is very long increases risk due to the law of deceleration with increased length, especially if there is limited pre-investigation because of tunnel depth. PDF |