In blasting operation, the aim is to achieve proper fragmentation and to avoid undesirable events such as backbreak. Therefore, predicting rock fragmentation and backbreak is very important to arrive at a technically and economically successful outcome. Since many parameters affect the blasting results in a complicated mechanism, employment of robust methods such as artificial neural network may be very useful. In this regard, this paper attends to simultaneous prediction of rock fragmentation and backbreak in the blasting operation of Tehran Cement Company limestone mines in Iran. Back propagation neural network (BPNN) and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) are adopted for the simulation. Also, regression analysis is performed between independent and dependent variables. For the BPNN modeling, a network with architecture 6-10-2 is found to be optimum whereas for the RBFNN, architecture 6-36-2 with spread factor of 0.79 provides maximum prediction aptitude. Performance comparison of the developed models is fulfilled using value account for (VAF), root mean square error (RMSE), determination coefficient (R2) and maximum relative error (MRE). As such, it is observed that the BPNN model is the most preferable model providing maximum accuracy and minimum error. Also, sensitivity analysis shows that inputs burden and stemming are the most effective parameters on the outputs fragmentation and backbreak, respectively. On the other hand, for both of the outputs, specific charge is the least effective parameter.