The objective of the paper is the presentation of a case study developed for geotechnical engineering instruction. The examined case study is suitable for undergraduate instruction and refers to the geotechnical design of a railway embankment focusing on slope stability analyses and settlement calculations. The presented geotechnical data have resulted from the geotechnical study implemented by Edafomichaniki S.A. within the framework of the project “Geotechnical Design of the New Railway Alignment between the Existing Line and Kavala’s Port”. The geotechnical design of a railway embankment is described thoroughly in the current paper and includes the following: a) the evaluation of the available geotechnical data encompassing the determination of soil stratigraphy and geotechnical design parameters of the encountered formations, b) the performance of geotechnical calculations regarding slope stability analyses and settlement calculations with detailed reference to consolidation theory and c) the presentation of the construction methodology of the embankment. The usefulness of the examined case study is highlighted through the achievement of a significant number of learning outcomes. The current paper is accompanied with detailed supplementary material.