The International Information Center for Geotechnical Engineers



1.) Bauer Maschinen GmbH. (2012). “Ground Improvement by Depth Vibrator.” PI 80, Schrobenhausen, Germany.

2.) Bo, M.W., Arulrajah, A., Horpibulsuk, S., Leong, M., & Disfani, M.M. (2013). “Densification of Land Reclamation Sands by Deep Vibratory Compaction Techniques.” J. Mater. Civ. Eng. ASCE.

3.) Brown, R.E. (1977). "Vibroflotation compaction of cohesionless soils." J. Geotech. Eng. Div. ASCE, 103(12), 1437-1451.

4.) D'Appolonia, E., Miller Jr., C.E., & Ware, T.M. (1953). "Sand Compaction by Vibroflotation." Proc., ASCE, 79(200), 1-23.

5.) D’Appolonia, E. (1954). “Loose Sands- Their Compaction by Vibroflotation.” Symp. on Dynamic Testing of Soils, ASTM Int., 138-162.

6.) Harder, L.F., Hammond, W.D, & Ross, P.S. (1984). “Vibroflotation Compaction at Thermalito Afterbay.” ASCE, New Orleans, LA, 57-70.

7.) Lunne, T., Robertson, P.K., & Powell, J.J.M. (1997). "Interpretation in Coarse-Grained Soils." Cone Penetration Testing in Geotechnical Practice, Blackie Academic & Professional, London, 81-85

8.) Massarsch, K.R. & Fellenius, B.H. (2005). “Deep Vibratory Compaction of Granular Soils.” Ground Improvement: Case Histories, B. Indraratna & J. Chu, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 539-561

9.) Raju, V.R., Wegner, R., & Veltriselvan, A. (2003) “Application of Vibro Techniques for Infrastructure Projects in India.” Proc. of the Indian Geot. Conf., Roorkee, India.

10.) Rollins, K.M., Anderson, J.K.S., McCain, A.K., & Goughnour, R.R. (2003). "Vertical Composite Drains for Mitigating Liquefaction Hazard." Proc. Thirteenth Int. Offshore and Polar Eng. Conf., Int. Soc. Offshore and Polar Eng., Honolulu, HI, 498-505.

11.) Sharma, Ravi (2004). “Seabird on Course.” Bharat Rakshak <>

12.) Sreekantiah, H.R. (1993). “Vibroflotation for Ground Improvement - A Case Study.” Third Int. Conf. on Case Histories in Geot. Eng., St. Louis, MO, 949-954.

13.) Uddin, N. & Baltz, J.F. (2004). “Seismic Evaluation and Remediation of Croton Dam.” Waterpower 1999, ASCE. 

14.) Vibroflotation Group. (2014). “Vibroflotation.” <> (Apr. 6, 2014).

15.) Wehr, W.C.S. & Raju, V.R. (2002). “On- and Offshore Vibro-Compaction for an Oil Pipeline in Singapore.” Proc., Int. Conf. on Vibratory Pile Driving and Deep Soil Compaction, Louvain-La Neuve, Belgium, 129-132.

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