The International Information Center for Geotechnical Engineers

Prefabricated Vertical Drains





[1] Ali, Faisal Haji. "The Flow Behavior of Deformed Prefabricated Vertical Drains." Geotextiles and Geomembranes 10 (1991): 235-48. Elsevier. Web. 2 Apr. 2014


[2] Barron, R. A. (1948). "The equivalent diameter of the bandshaped drain." Trans. ASCE, Vol. 113,718-754.


[3] Basu, D., Basu, P. and Prezzi, M. (2013) A Rational Approach to the Design of Vertical Drains Considering Soil Disturbance. Sound Geotechnical Research to Practice: pp. 550-565. Doi: 10/1061/9780784412770.037


[4] Chen, Yun-Min, Xiao-Wu Tang, and Ning Jia. "Consolidation of Sensitive Clay with Vertical Drain." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 31 (2007): 1695-713. Wiley InterScience. Web. 2 Apr. 2014.


[5] Fellenius, Bengt H. "Basics of Foundation Design." (2014): 104-21. Web. 19 Mar.2014. <>.


[6] Foott, R. and Ladd, C.C., 1981, “Undrained Settlement of Plastic and Organic Clays”, JGED ASCE FT8, pp. 1079-1094


[7] Goldberg, A. D., et al. "Recent Advances in Prefabricated Vertical Drains."Ports 2013@ sSuccess through Diversification. ASCE.


[8] Hansbo, S. (1979). “Consolidation of clay by band-shaped prefabricated drains.” Ground Engrg., 12(5), 16-25


[9] Holtz, R. D. "Preloading with prefabricated vertical strip drains." Geotextiles and Geomembranes 6.1 (1987): 109-131.


 [10] Long, R., and A. Covo. "Equivalent Diameter of Vertical Drains With an Oblong Cross Section." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 120 (1994): 1625-30. ASCE. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <>.


[11] Miura, N., and J. C. Chai. "Discharge Capacity of Prefabricated Vertical Drains Confined in Clay."Geosynthetics International 7.2 (2000): 119-35. International Geosynthetics Society. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. < gi-v7n2-paper3.pdf>.


[12] Rixner, J. J., Kraemer, S. R., and Smith, A. D. (1986). "Geocomposite Drains, vol. I: Engineering Assessment and Preliminary Guidelines." Federal Hwy. Administration Res. Rep. No. FHWA/RD-86/168, McLean, VA.


[13] Rixner, J. J., Kraemer, S. R., and Smith, A. D. (1986). "Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. II: summary of research effort." Federal Hwy. Administration Res. Rep. No. FHWA/RD-86/169, Washington, D.C


[14] Scott, R.F. (1963). Principles of soil mechanics. Addison-Wesles, Reading, Mass., 121-125


[15] Stapelfeldt, T. "Preloading and vertical drains." Electronic publication, http://www. tkk. fi/Yksikot/Rakennus/Pohja/Prel oading_and_vertical_drains. pdf (2006)


[16] Suits, L.D., Gemme, R.L., and Masi, J.J. (1986). “Effectiveness of prefabricated drains on laboratory consolidation of remolded soils.” Consolidation of soils: testing and evaluation, ASTM STP 892, R. N. Yong and F. C. Townshed, eds., ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa., 663-683.


[17] Taube, Martin G., P.E., M.ASCE. "Prefabricated Vertical Drains: The Squeeze is On." Geo-Strata Mar. 2008: 12-16. Menardusa. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <>.


[18] Taylor, D. W. (1948). Fundamentals of soil mechcanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 194-198


[19] Tran-Nguyen, Hoang-Hung. "Effect of Deformation of Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) on Discharge Capacity and the Characteristics of the PVD Smear Zone." Diss. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2010. Proquest. Web. 2 Apr. 2014.


[20] Tran-Nguyen, H. Edil, T. (2011) The Characteristics of the PVD Smear Zone. Geo-Frontiers 2011:pp. 748-757. Doi: 10.1061/41165(397)77


[21] Van de Griend, A.A., 1984, "Research into the Influence of Relative Compression of a Soil Layer and the Drain Deformation on the Discharge Capacity of a Number of Vertical Plastic Drains", thesis FOR THE Delft Technical University Specialist Group for Geotechnology



Additional references used to address the comments provided below:

[22] Davie, J.R., Lewis, M.R., Young, Jr., L.W. (1988), “Accelerated Consolidation of Soft Clays Using Wick Drains,” Second International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, June 1-5, 1988, St. Louis, Mo., Paper No. 5.29, pg. 1019-1024

[23] Leonards, G.A. (1962), “Engineering Properties of Soils”, Chapter 2 in Foundation Engineering, edited by G.A. Leonards, McGraw Hill.





Figure and Table List


[A] Prefabricated Vertical Drains


[B] Cross-Section With and Without Vertical Drains


[C] Layfield Wick Drain Example


[D] Geosupply Wick Drain Example


[E] Cross-Section of PVD

Barron, R.A. (1948)


[F] Flow Net for Flow to Oblong Drain from Circular Source

Barron, R.A. (1948)


[G] Plot of Equivalent-Drain-Diameter to Width-of-Drain Ration, d/b versus Thickness-of-Drain to Width-of-Drain Ration, t/v

Barron, R.A. (1948)


[H] Comparison of Equivalent Drain Diameters by Various Methods

Barron, R.A. (1948)


[I] PVD Installation


[J] Installation Patterns

Holtz, R.D. (1987)


[K] Drain, Mandrel and Anchor Plate

Cramer (undated)


[L] Approximation of the Disturbed Zone Around the Mandrel

Holtz, R.D. (1987)


[M] Various Possible Configurations for Vertical Accommodation to Soil Settlement

Ali, Faisal Haji (1991)


[N] Deformation Patterns

Tran-Nguyen, Hoang-Hung (2010)






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