The International Information Center for Geotechnical Engineers

Ground Freezing




Andersland, O.B., and Anderson, D.M. (1978). “Geotechnical Engineering for Cold Regions.” McGraw Hill, New York, NY.


Andersland, O. and Ladanyi, B. (2004). Frozen Ground Engineering, 2nd ed., Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.


Arenson, L., Johansen, M., and Springman, S. (2004). “Effects of Volumetric ice Content and Strain Rate on Shear Strength under Triaxial Conditions for Frozen Soil Samples.” Permafrost Periglac., 15, 261-271.


ASTM Standard D2488 (2000). "Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.


ASTM Standard D4083-89 (2007). "Standard Practice for Description of Frozen Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.


ASTM Standard D5520-11 (2012). "Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Creep Properties of Frozen Soil Samples by Uniaxial Compression," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.


ASTM Standard D7300-11 (2012). "Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Strength Properties of Frozen Soil at a Constant Rate of Strain," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.


Baker, T.H.W., Jones, S.J., and Parameswaran, V.R. (1981). “Confined and Unconfined Compression Tests on Frozen Sands.” 4th Canadian Permafrost Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 387-393.


Bennett, L. and Nickling, W.G. (1984). “The Shear Strength Characteristics of Frozen Coarse Granular Debris.” J. Glaciol., 106(30).


Crippa, C. and Manassero, V. (2006). “Artificial Ground Freezing at Sophiaspoortunnel (The Netherlands) — Freezing Parameters: Data Acquisition and Processing.” GeoCongress 2006, 1-6.


Da Re, G. et al. (2003). “Triaxial Testing of Frozen Sand: Equipment and Example Results.” Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 17(3), 90-118.


Dijk, P. and Bouwmeester-van den Bos, J. (2001). “Large Scale Application of Artificial Ground Freezing.” Soft Ground Technology, 315-330.


Erckhardt, H. (1981). “Creep tests with frozen Soils under Uniaxial Tension and Uniaxial Compression.” Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume, Proc. of the 4th Canadian Permafrost Conference, National Research Council of Canada. Calgary, Alberta. pp. 394-405.

FHWA (2013). “Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels - Civil Elements.” <> (April 6, 2014).


Geo-Slope (2014). “Thermal Analysis with TEMP/W.” Geo-Slope International. <>.


Grant, S. (2001). “Expected Cost Effect of Increasing the Size of a Frozen-Ground Waste Containment Project at Ft. Detrick, Maryland.” ERDC/CRREL TN-01-1 2001, 1-4.


“Ground Freezing.” MoreTrench, <> (April 6, 2014).  


Han, S. and Goodings, D. (2006). “Practical Model of Frost Heave in Clay.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.,132(1), 92–101.


Hu, X. et al. (2010). “Safety Problem of Freezing Projects in Saline Soils.” Ground Improvement and Geosynthetics, 255-262.


Japanese Geotechnical Standards. JGS 0171-2003. (2003). “Test Method for Frost Heave Prediction of Soils.” Japanese Geotechnical Standards.


Japanese Geotechnical Standards. JGS 0172-2003. (2003). “Test Method for Frost Susceptibility of Soils.” Japanese Geotechnical Standards.


Jessberger, H. (1980). “Theory and Application of Ground Freezing in Civil Engineering.” Cold Regions Science and Technology, 3 (1980), 3-27

JGS Standard 0171-2003, "Test Method for Frost Heave Prediction of Soils"


Jessberger, H. and Vyalov, S. (1978). “1st Init Symp on Ground Freezing.” Bochum, vol (2).


Johansson, T. (2009). “Artificial Ground Freezing in Clayey Soils - Laboratory and Field Studies of Deformations During Thawing at the Bothnia Line.” Doctoral thesis, KTH, Div of Soil and Rock Mech.


Kanie, S. et al. (2013). “Experimental and Practical Evaluation Method of Three-dimensional Frost Heave of Frozen Soil.” ISCORD 2013, 164-174.


Klein, J. (2012). “FAQs for Brine Freezing of Shafts.”, <> (March 18, 2014).


Lackner, R. et al. (2005). “Artificial Ground Freezing of Fully Saturated Soil: Thermal Problem.” J. Eng. Mech., 131(2), 11–220.


Ladanyi, B. (1982). “Borehole Creep and Relaxation Tests in Ice-Rich Permafrost.” Proc. of the 4th Canadian Permafrost Conference, 406-415.


Ladanyi, B., and Melouki, M. (1992). “Determination of Creep properties of Frozen Soils by Means of the Borehole Stress Relaxation Test.” Can. Geotech. J., 30, 170-186.


Li, H. et al. (2004). “Effects of temperature, strain rate and dry density on compressive strength of saturated frozen clay.” Cold Regions Science and Technology,39,(2004) 39–45.


Mageau, Daniel. (2013). "I-405 Stormwater Detential Vault." SoilFreeze


Morgenstern, N.R., and Nixon, J.F. (1971). “One-Dimensional Consolidation of Thawing Soils.” Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.


Oestergaard, F.E. and Zubeck, H.K. (2013), “Practice of Testing Frozen Soils.” Mechanical Properties of Frozen Soils, STP 1568, Zubeck, H. and Yang, Z. Eds., pp. 62-75, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.


Sanger, F.J. and Sayles, F.H. (1979). “Thermal and theological computations for artificially

frozen ground construction.” Eng. Geol., 13, 311-337.


Sayles, F. et al. (1987). “Classification and Laboratory Testing of Artificially Frozen Ground.” Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 1(1), 22–48.


Schmall, P. and Braun, B. (2006). “Ground Freezing — A Viable and Versatile Construction Technique.” Cold Regions Engineering 2006, 1-11.


Schmidt, M.F. (1895). “L'emploi de la congelation pour l'execution de travaux dans

les terrains aquiferes (Use of freezing for work in waterbearing ground).” Bull. Soe.

Ind. Min. St. Etienne, 9, 3e serie, k895.


Wagner, A. and Yarmak Jr., E. (2013). “The Performance of Artificial Frozen Barriers.” ISCORD 2013, 116-127.


Wagner, A. and Yarmak, Jr., E. (2012). “Demonstration of an Artificial Frozen Barrier.” ERDC/CRREL TR-12-12 2012, 1-28.


Widianto et al. (2009). “Foundation Design for Frost Heave.” Cold Regions Engineering 2009, 599-608.


Xanthakos, P.P., Abramson, L.W., and Bruce, D.A. (1994). “Ground Control and Improvement.” John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.


Xu, X., Lai, Y., Dong, Y., and Qi, J. (2011). “Laboratory Investigation on Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Ice-Saturated Frozen Sandy Soil.” Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 69, 98-104.


Yang, Y., Lai, Y., and Li, J. (2009). “Laboratory Investigation on the Strength Characteristics of Frozen Sand Considering Effect of Confining Pressure.” Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 60, 245-250.


Yasufuku, N., Springman, S.M., Arenson, L.U., and Ramholt, T. (2003). “Stress-Dilatancy Behavior of Frozen Sand in Direct Shear.” Permafrost, Swets and Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, p. 1253.


Zhu, Y., and Carbee, D.L. (1987). “Tensile Strength of Frozen Silt.” CRREL Report 87-15: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH.




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