The International Information Center for Geotechnical Engineers



  • Soils

Soil vitrification is applicable to any type of soil, however, it is not usually used on soil with high water content. The reason is only the cost. For moist soil, water needs to be evaporated before the vitrification process begins. The energy cost is increased at high water content. If vitrification is to be performed within aquifers, contaminants may flow to other places due to diffusion, which is another issue that needs to be considered. Also, the volume of the waste to be vitrified cannot be infinit. If the wastes are too deep or the soil contains too many voids, in-situ vitrification would be more difficult.  


  • Types of Contaminants


As described before, due to the high strength, low leaching characteristics and inert chemical properties, vitrification is good for hazardous, radioactive and organic contaminants as well as heavy metal. It can certainly be used to treat other types of contaminants if necessary. 



  •  Waste Streams
    • Sludge or filter cake, composed of metal hydroxides, carbonates, nitrates, or silicates;
    • Ion exchange resins, inorganic filter media,zeolites;
    • Asbestos or glass fiber fillers;
    • Incinerator ash and off-gas liquor;
    • Soils and geologic materials;
    • Concrete;
    • Radioactively contaminated materials;
    • Chemical process wastes;



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