The International Information Center for Geotechnical Engineers


[1]: Vitrification, <>

[2]: Radioactive Waste, <>

[3]: Thermal Transitions: Crystallization, Melting and the Glass Transition, Penn State University, <>

[4]: Glass Transition, the University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Polymer Science,  <>

[5]: G Roth, S Weisenburger, (2000). Vitrification of high-level liquid waste: glass chemistry, process chemistry and process technology. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 202 (), pp.197

[6]: Michael I. Ojovan, William E. Lee, (2010). Glassy Wasteform for Nuclear Waste Immobilization. <>

[7]: Laurel J. Staley, (1995). Vitrification Technologies for the Treatment of Contaminated Soil. (Chapter 9)

[8]: EPA, (1997). Vitrification of Soils Contaminated by Hazardous and/or Radioactive Wastes. EPA/540/S-97/501.

[9]: Louis J. Circeo, Robert C. Martin, (1997). In Situ Plasma Vitrification of Buried Wastes.

[10]: M. Paolone, R. Berti, C. A. Nucci, G. Camera Roda, P.L. Rossi, L. Bruzzi, A. Bazzi, (2003). A Research on Plants for In Situ Vitrification of Contaminated Soils. 2003 IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference.

[11]: S.S.Koegler, C.H.Kindle, (1991). Modeling of the In-situ Vitrification Process.

[12]: Hanford VIT Plant, <>

[13]: What is Vitrification,ALCOR,  <>

[14]: Meegoda, J., Ezeldin, A., Fang, H., and Inyang, H. (2003). ”Waste Immobilization Technologies.” Pract. Period. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. WasteManage., 7(1), 46–58.

[15]:  Ewing, R. C., & Haaker, R. F. (1979). Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms (No. PNL-2776). Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA).

[16]: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. (2005). "Waste Form Release Calculations for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment".

[17]: Bingham, P. A., & Hand, R. J. (2006). Vitrification of toxic wastes: a briefreview. Advances in applied ceramics, 105(1), 21-31.

[18]: Scarinci, G., Brusatin, G., Barbieri, L., Corradi, A., Lancellotti, I., Colombo, P., ... & Dall'Igna, R. (2000). Vitrification of industrial and natural wastes with production of glass fibres. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 20(14), 2485-2490.

[19]: Jong-Kil Park , Young-Pyo Moon , Byoung-Chul Park , Myung-Jai Song , Kyum-Sun Ko & Jin-Man Cho (2001): NON-COMBUSTIBLE WASTE VITRIFICATION WITH PLASMA TORCH MELTE, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 36:5, 861-871.

[20]: Jantzen, C. M., Pickett, J. B., & Ramsey, W. G. (1993). Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification (No. WSRC-MS--93-118; CONF-930873--19). Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States).

[21]: United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (1992a, May). "Handbook: Vitrification Technologies for Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes". EPA-625-R92-002.

[22]: United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (1995b, March). "Geosafe Corporation In Situ Vitrification INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUTAION REPORT". EPA-540-R94-520.

[23]: EPA, (1994). In Situ Vitrification Treatment. EPA/540/S-94/504.

[24]: Shearer, T., Hnat, J., Patten, J., Santioanni, J., and J. St. Clair, Vitrification of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils with Vortec Corporation's Combustion & Melting System (CMS) Presented at the I&EC Special Symposium, American Chemical Society, Atlanta GA September 21-23, 1992.

[25]: Seattle Times, 6 Hanford tanks are leaking nuclear waste, Feburary 22, 2013 <>








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