The International Information Center for Geotechnical Engineers

Investigating Soil Remediation Techniques for Military Explosive and Weapons Contaminated Sites




[1] Clark, Brandon, and Raj Boopathy. "Evaluation of Bioremediation Methods for the Treatment of Soil Contaminated with Explosives in Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Minden, Louisiana." Journal of Hazardous Materials 143 (2007): 643-48. Accessed November 23, 2015.


[2] Richardson, Clinton, Kimberly Stokes, and Christa Hockensmith. "Enzymatic Treatment of TNT and RDX Contaminated Soils Using Spinach Extract." October 12, 2010. Accessed November 23, 2015.


[3] Davis, Jeffrey, Michael Brooks, Steven Larson, Catherine Nestler, and Deborah Felt. "Lime Treatment of Explosive-Contaminated Soil from Munitions Plants and Firing Ranges." Soil and Sediment Contamination 15 (2006): 565-80. DOI:10.1080/15320380600959032.


[4] Royal Society of Chemistry, “Chemistry in its Element - TNT,” 2015 chemistryworld/podcast/CIIEcompounds/transcripts/TNT.asp


[5] Lewis, Thomas, David Newcombe, and Ronald Crawford. "Bioremediation of Soils Contaminated with Explosives." Journal of Environmental Management 70 (2004): 291-307. Accessed November 23, 2015.


[6] Meyers, Susan K., Shiping Deng, Nick T. Basta, William W. Clarkston, and Gregory G. Wilber. “Long-Term Explosive Contamination in Soil: Effects on Soil Microbial Community and Bioremediation.” Soil and Sediment Contamination 16 (2007): 61-77. DOI:10.1080/15320380601077859


[7] Pichtel, John. “Distribution and Fate of Military Explosives and Propellants in Soil: A Review.” Applied and Environmental Soil Science (2012): 1-33. DOI: 10.1155/2012/617236


[8] Pantex, “Pantex History Presentation,” Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC, 2014


[9] Natural Resource Conservation Service, “Ogallala Aquifer Initiative,” United States Department of Agriculture, 2015

[10] Joint Base Lewis-McChord (JBLM), “Joint Base Lewis-McChord History,” MIT Communications, LLC, 2015


[11] Canadian Army, “Ranges in Ontario,” Government of Canada, 2015


[12] Defense and Armed Forces - Guidance, “The Defense Training Estate,” United Kingdom Ministry of Defense, 2015


[13] Martin, W.A., D.R. Felt, C.C. Nestler, G. Fabian, G. O'Connor, and S.L. Larson. "Hydrated Lime for Metal Immobilization and Explosives Transformation: Field Demonstration." Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste 17, no. 3 (2013): 237-44. DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000176.


[14] Clausen, Jay L., Nic Korte, Mary Dodson, Joe Robb, and Shirley Rieven. “Conceptual Model for the Transport of Energetic Residues from Surface Soil to Groundwater by Range Activities.” US Army Corps of Engineers - Engineer Research and Development Center (2006): 1-153. Accessed November 23, 2015.


[15] United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Technical Fact Sheet - 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT),” 2014


[16] United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Technical Fact Sheet - Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine (RDX)” 2014 files/2014-03/documents/ffrrofactsheet_contaminant_rdx_january2014_final.pdf


[17] Zero Waste Detroit, “Detroit Incinerator,” 2015


[18] Janowsky, J.V. “Ueber eine reaction der dinitrokorper,” Berichte24 (1891):  971. Accessed on November 23, 2015


[19] Thorn, K.A. and K.R. Kennedy. “Investigation of the Covalent Binding of Reduced TNT Amines to Soil Humic Acid, Model Compounds, and Lingnocellulose.” Environmental Science Tenchnology38 (2002): 2224-2231. Accessed on November 23, 2015


[20] Hansen, Lance, Steven Larson, Jeffrey Davis, John Cullinane, Catherine Nestler, and Deborah Felt. "Lime Treatment of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Contaminated Soils: Proof of Concept Study." Environmental Laboratory TR-03-15 (2013): 1-15. Accessed on November 23, 2015.


[21] Boopathy, R. "Bioremediation of Explosives Contaminated Soil." International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 46 (2000): 29-36. Accessed November 23, 2015.


[22] Gerth, A., A. Hefner, and H. Thomas. "Natural Remediation of TNT-Contaminated Water and Soil." Acta Biotechnology 2, no. 3 (2003): 143-50. Accessed November 23, 2015.


[23] Trivedi, Bijou. "Modified Tobacco Plant Removes TNT From Soil." National Geographic, 2001.


[24] Salter-Blanc, Alexandrea, Eric Bylaska, Julia Ritchie, and Paul Tratnyek. "Mechanisms and Kinetics of Alkaline Hydrolysis of the Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4- Dinitroanisole (DNAN)." Environmental Science and Technology (2013): 6790-798. Accessed on November 23, 2015.  


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